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Yamuna River

Introduction
Yamuna River The Yamuna river sometimes called Jamuna, Kalindi river are lifeline of cities like Delhi and Agra. It is a north Indian river and counted among long rivers of India. It is second largest tributary river of the Ganges in northern India. Yamuna is next only to Ganga in her sacredness. Origin of Yamuna is from Yamunotri Glacier at a height of 6,387 meters on the south western slopes of Bandarpooch peaks in the uppermost region of the lower Himalaya in Uttarakhand. It travels a total length of 1,376 kilometres (855 mi) and has a drainage system of 366,223 square kilometers (141,399 sq mi), 40.2% of the entire Ganges Basin, before merging with the Ganges at Triveni Sangam, Allahabad, the site for the Kumbha Mela every twelve years. It is the longest river in India which does not directly flow to the sea. Yamuna crosses many states like Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, Passing by Uttarakhand and later Delhi, and meets it’s helper branches on the way, Including Tons, It’s largest tributary in Uttarakhand, Chambal, its longest tributary which has its own large basin, followed by Sindh, the Betwa, and Ken. Most importantly it creates the highly fertile alluvial, Yamuna-Ganges Do abregion between itself and the Ganges in the Indo-Gangetic plain. Nearly 57 million people depend on the Yamuna waters. With an annual flow of about 10,000 cubic billion metres (cbm) and usage of 4,400 cbm (of which irrigation constitutes 96 per cent), the river accounts for more than 70 per cent of Delhi’s water supplies. Just like the Ganges, the Yamuna too is highly respected in Hinduism and worshipped as goddess Yamuna, throughout its course. In Hindu mythology, she is the daughter of Sun God, Surya, and sister of Yama, the God of Death, hence also known as Yami and according to popular legends, bathing in its sacred waters frees one from the suffering of death. The water of Yamuna is of "reasonably good quality" through its length from Yamunotri in the Himalayas to Wazirabad in Delhi, about 375 kilometers , Yamuna got fully polluted between Wazirabad Barrage and Okhla Barrage due to the discharge of waste water through 15 drains. One official report describes the river as a "sewage drain" with biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values ranging from 14 to 28 mg/l and high coliform content. There are three main sources of pollution in the river, namely households and municipal disposal sites, soil erosion resulting from deforestation occurring to make way for agriculture along with resulting chemical wash-off from fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides and run-off from commercial activity and industrial sites.

Source
Yamuna originate from the Yamunotri Glacier at an elevation of 6,387 meters, on the south western slopes of Badrinath peak, which is in the Monsoorie range of lower Himalayas. Yamunotri Temple is a holy dedication to the goddess, it is the part of Chota Chardham Yatra Circuit. The Sant Markandeya wrote Markandeya Puran on the right Bank of River, which is on 13 kms treck route called as Markandey Tirtha. From here Yamuna flows southwards for about 200 kilometers through the lower Himalayas and the Shivalik Hills range. An important part of his early drainage area approx 2,3202 kilometers lies in Himanchal Pradesh and a main branch draining the upper catchment area is the Tons, Yamuna’s largest tributary, which rises from the Hari- ki-Dun Valley. It merges after Kalsi in Dehradun. Other tributaries in the region are the Giri, Rishi Ganga, Kunta, Hanuman Ganga and Bata. Thereafter Yamuna go down on to the plains of Doon Valley at Dak Pathar in Dehradun. The Yamuna creats natural state border between Himanchal Pradesh and Uttarakhand states and downwards between the states of Haryana, Delhi and Uttar Paradesh. After touches the Ind- Gangetic plain, the largest alluvial fertile plain in the world, the Yamuna run almost parallel to Ganga. It creats the Ganga Yamuna Dobe region spread across 69,0002 kilometers, one third of the entire plain. The plain itself supports one third of India’s population in farming. Yamuna passes by Delhi, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh before merging with the Ganga at the sacred point Triveni Sangam at Allahabad.

History
It Seems that the Name of Yamuna is obtain by the Sanskrit Word “Yama” means twins and it may have applied to river because it’s run parrellal to the Gangas. The name of Yamuna is mentioned in Rig-Veda at many places which was composed between 1700-1100 B.c. and also in the Atharava Veda. In the Rig Veda, it is said that Yama and Yami the twins were extremely fond of each other and lived an idyllic life on Earth where the day never ended – they went where they pleased and did what they wanted. It is also said that Lord Shiva could not tolerate the sadness after the death of Satidevi. At last when he went to Yamuna river, It became so black as it absorbs all the sorrows of Shiva. The story is further detailed in 16th Century Sanskrit hymn, Yamunashtakam an ode by the philosopher Vallabhacharya. The chant also praises her for being the source of spiritual ability. Yamuna is a holder of love and compassion. Yamuna can grant us freedom even from death, the realm of her elder brother. In the survey of Selucus I Nicator, Yamuna mentiones as Lomanes and Magasthanese a greek traveler and geographer visited India before 288 BC at the time of Chandragupta’s death, also mention the river in his text Indica. In Mahabharata Indraprastha was also situated on the banks of Yamuna. It is considered to the modern day city of Delhi.

Religious Significance
Yamuna is also known as Yami, is the sister of Yama, the god of death, and the daughter of Surya devta and his wife Saranyu. Yamuna ji has very important position in Pushti Marga. A sect of Hinduism based on the Suddhaadvaita, in which Shri Krishna is supreme being, growed by Vallabhacharya (Mahaprabhuji), and having a large folloeing in India. The river Yamuna is also connected with the religious stories of Krishna also mentioned in Purans like as Kalia Daman, The subduing of Kalia. According to legends Yamuna is closely related to Lord Krishna and Mahabharata. Krishna was taken cross the Yamuna on the night of his birth. Krishna and Gopis also used to play on the bank of the Yamuna as children.

Yamuna in Agra
The river Yamuna, linked to the sacred river Ganga, meanders through Agra passing many Mughal sites of special interest including Chinni ka Rauza, Imtiad ud Daula. The Taj Mahal and the most of the thriving city is located on the west bank of the river which played an important role in the development and construction of the Taj Mahal. Approx all the Mughal monumemts and mausoleums are near the bank of Yamuna. Yamuna is the life line of Agra city. Yamuna fulfills the need of water in Agra city and makes it’s look more beautiful. When the Taj reflects in Yamuna’s water this is amazing to see.

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