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Hammam in Fatehpur Sikri Fatehpur Sikri city was built by the Mughal Emperor Akbar (r.1556-1605) between 1571 and 1585. It has served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1571 to 1585. After his military victories over Chittor and Ranthambore, Akbar decided to shift his capital from Agra to a new location on the Sikri ridge, to honor the Sufi saint Salim Chishti. It is approx. 37 kms from Agra city. Here he commenced the construction of a planned walled city which took the next fifteen years in planning and construction of a series of royal palaces, harem, courts, a mosque, private quarters and other utility buildings. He named the city, Fatehabad, with Fateh, a word of Arabic origin in Persian, meaning "victorious". it was later called Fatehpur Sikri. It is at Fatehpur Sikri that the legends of Akbar and his famed courtiers, the nine jewels or Navaratnas, were born. Fatehpur Sikri is one of the best preserved collections of Indian Mughal architecture in India. Now a days, it is UNESCO World Heritage Site and plays important role in Agra tourism. Tourists from all over the world visits this place. It is a very well maintained site and thus we are able to view same Fatehpur Sikri as it was after completion of construction. It was a fortified township where varieties of buildings were built for citizens, shopkeepers, ministers, royal family members etc. Hammam is one of such fabulous construction.


Hammam means a community bath house or only a bath house. Basically it comes from the Persian word 'hu-mam' which means heat. It is also assumed that it might have come from the word 'at-hamim' which means summer-hot. The idea of Hammam was developed in the Muslim countries. Usually there would be separate arrangements for men and women for bathing. In Arab countries, the word Hammam was used to mean bath place in general. In Turkey, bath place for the commoners was also called Hammam. In the Middle East, Hammams used to act as the meeting place for social, cultural, religious interaction and refinement and as the means to carry forward the heritage.

The Turkish Baths are situated on the south west of the Diwan-i-Am and next to the Turkish Sultana's House at Fatehpur Sikri. The building is unremarkable from the outside and has no windows. Hammam or Principal Court Baths is located right below the Daftar Khana. The domes of the baths come into view while descending from Daftar Khana. Containing some of the finest specimens of plaster art in Fatehpur Sikri, these baths appear too grand to have been built by the three Hakims of Gilan whose house lies above them to the north-east. These were probably royal baths. They contain a dressing room, a steam room, and rooms for hot and cold plunge baths, two large rooms probably for massage and a latrine, all finely plastered. A well on the south-east corner supplied water, which was carried up a ramp by men with skin bags or pulled up over a pulley on stone piers and emptied out on the roof, whence it flowed into a vast masonry tank within the building.

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