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Emperor Shah Jahan

Taj Mahal Read about great Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. He was one of the most well known and popular Mugual emperor due to his work and his love for Mumtaz Mahal. Shahjahan was also known as Shahbuddin Mohammed Shah Jahan. It was his real name which was given in childhood. He was a Mughal Emperor who ruled in the Indian Subcontinent from 1628 to 1658. He was the fifth Mughal ruler, after Babur, Humayun, Akbar and Jahangir. Shah Jahan succeeded the throne after revolting against his father, Jahangir. The period of Shah Jahan's rule in India is regarded as the golden age of Indian architecture. He is credited with constructing numerous beautiful monuments throughout the landscape of India. However, the most brilliant monument is the 'Taj Mahal' of Agra, which he built in the memory of his beloved wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The elegant "Peacock Throne', which he got built for himself, is believed to be worth millions of dollars by modern estimates. Shah Jahan is also the founder of the modern city of Delhi. During that time, the city was known as Shahjahanabad. In 1627, when Jahangir died, Prince Khurram succeeded the Mughal throne as Shah Jahan (meaning the King of the World). He was also given the title of the 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunctions', in reference to his pride in his Timurid roots. Throughout the earlier military campaigns of Shah Jahan as well as his rebellion against Jahangir, Mumtaz accompanied him everywhere with his company.

Early Life
Shahjahan's childhood name was Khurram. Shah Jahan was born in Lahore on 5 January 1592. The name of the mother of Shahjahan was Manvati, whom we also know as Jagat Gosai. She was called Bilquis Makani in the Mughal court. Manvati was the daughter of King Uday Singh of Kota State of Marwar. Khurram was very dear to his grandfather- Mughal Emperor Akbar. He was the third son of his father. Pleased by the southern victory of Khurram, Jehangir honored him with the title of “Shah Jahan”. In 1611, his father married Nur Jahan, the widowed daughter of a Persian immigrant and the aunt of Arjumand Banu Begum. Prince Khurram married Arjumand Banu Begum in May 1612. She was given the name of Mumtaz Mahal (Ornament of the Palace) when Prince Khurram acceded the throne and became Shah Jahan. However, the succession was not simple and easy. In fact, a bloody fight with his father ensued before the accession.

Mughal Emperor Shahjahan was very skilled at studying in his childhood. His education was properly arranged since childhood Due to Akbar and Rukaiya Begum. When Khurram was born in 1592 and was only six days old, Akbar ordered that the prince be taken away from his mother and handed him over to Ruqaiya so that he could grow up under her care and Akbar could fulfill his wife's wish to raise a Mughal emperor. Khurram's upbringing was the responsibility of Rukaiya begum. As a child, Khurram received a broad education benifitting his status as a Mughal prince. He had a good knowledge of Persian language and literature, he had studied geography, and economics, history and politics, music and arts, and also he had good skill in running the weapons. Apart from this Khurram was also very skillful in horse riding. in 1607, Prince Khurram was engaged to marry Arjumand Banu Begum, the 14-year-old daughter of a Persian nobleman. Their wedding did not take place until five years later, and Khurram would marry two other women in the meantime, but Arjumand was his true love. She later became known as Mumtaz Mahal - "The Chosen One of the Palace." Khurram dutifully sired a son by each of his other wives, and then neglected them almost entirely. He and Mumtaz Mahal had 14 children, seven of whom survived to adulthood.

Shah Jahan was seated on the throne after Jahangir's death. His beautiful enthronization ceremony was held on 6 February 1628 AD in Agra. A lot of fun and celebration was celebrated on this occasion. Warlords were promoted and the prizes were given. After the reign of the throne, he had ended the revolt of Jagat Singh and Khanjahan Lodi. He also defeated the Portuguese in the war and invaded Golconda, Bijapur and Ahmednagar to strengthen its empire. According to historians, Shah Jahan was a more hardcore Muslim than Jahangir and Akbar. After sitting on the throne he did the first thing that he stopped use of the solar year in state work and started the use of Moon Year and the use of Hijri San.

Monuments by Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan had special interest in building and architecture. In Agra, he built the Taj Mahal in memory of his favorite wife Mumtaz Mahal, apart from this; he built the Moti Masjid in Agra, Red Fort of Delhi, Jama Masjid, Shalimar Garden in Lahore, Sections of the Lahore Fort, Jahangir Masouleum and Shahjahan Mosque etc. One of the most significant incidents in the life of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan was the construction of Taj Mahal, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. His wife Mumtaz Mahal died while giving birth to their fourteenth child. Shah Jahan decided to build world's most beautiful monument in the memory of his beloved wife. The monument, which is known as the 'Taj Mahal', contains the tombs of both Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan. Taj Mahal, also known as the Epitome of Love, is exceptionally beautiful and has become one of the most visited tourist destinations of India. People from different parts of the world come to India to see this amazing edifice in white. The building occupied 20,000 workers over the course of two decades, including craftsmen from far-off Baghdad and Bukhara, and cost 32 million rupees.

Mayur Throne
Shahjahan had constructed the Mayur Throne. It was also popular by the name of Takht-e-Touse. This throne was constructed with precious gems and kohinoor diamonds. In this throne there were 12 pillars and 2 peacocks present. Among these two peacocks, the tree was carved with diamond, pearl, emerald and red beads, which was extremely decorative. Nadir Shah took the Muayur throne to Iran in 1739 AD.

Shah Jahan fell seriously ill in September 1657. He announced his elder son Dara Shikoh as his successor but his younger son Aurangzeb disliked this decision and this caused dispute in between brothers, causing military war in between them. As Dara Shikoh was of poetic nature and less expertise in military tactics so was defeated by Aurangzeb and later killed in an conspiracy by Aurangzeb. Shah Jahan was deeply disturbed by this all. At the same time, construction of Taj Mahal has caused serious adverse effect on Mughal empire. This has made Aurangzeb to take advantage of situation and dethroned his father. He kept him in house-arrest. While visiting Agra Fort we can visit to that citadel where Shah Jahan spend last few years of his life by viewing Taj Mahal from a distance. Shah Jahan left this world, in 22/Jan/1666. He spend around 9 years in such a house-arrest. Some people name it as imprisoned situation but he was never treated as prisoner and enjoyed homely stay where he can meet relatives, have good food, luxury was also arranged to him. Only condition was that he will not leave the place and will not participate in any political activities. After his death, he was buried in same Taj Mahal, beside Mumtaz Mahal so that in heaven they will remain together.

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